The compilation of rentals lists of rents due the community annually was at Lynn a by-product of the initiative in the 1380s to develop that source of borough income. The chief catalyst for the formulation of this policy (aside from difficulty in balancing the borough budget) appears to have been a grant (KL/Be 575) in 1378 by the executors of Margaret Kenynghale, né Burghard, of numerous properties she had inherited from her father. The grant was made to a group of burgesses, headed by leading jurat and Merchant Gild alderman Thomas de Botkesham; this group doubtless was representing the interests of the borough community which was not yet formally empowered to act corporately and, if it had, would have risked breaking the statute of mortmain. The properties were:
Rentals are referred to in the chamberlains' accounts of the early '80s. By the time of the the one translated here, compiled in 1391, the borough had acquired other properties, and the Burghard properties were distributed throughout the document, rather than identified en bloc some having been subdivided. Apart from the so-called Newland Survey of ca.1279, which is actually a rental produced for the Bishop and his officers and is therefore not a borough document proper, the earliest surviving rental from Lynn is that which follows (King's Lynn archives C48/6).
Text from the original document in 1391 is presented in bolded black text. In the years immediately following its compilation, a few alterations were made to reflect changes in tenants and changes in value. Figures given in red are those which were inserted at a later date. Eventually a new rental would have had to be compiled.
The next, and only other medieval, rental to survive (KL/C48/7) can be dated to either September 1424 or September 1425 from the name the mayor; the death of tenant Robert Burgeys around October 1424 favours the earlier date, but the transfer of the town mill to John Wynch occurred in November 1424. Possibly the compilation of this rental was begun in September 1424 and was not completed until later in the year.
Whether there was any intermediate rental between 1391 and 1424 is uncertain, although it would seem problable. However, the section in the chamberlains' accounts on income from rents and farms had become so detailed by 1398/99 that it almost has the appearance of a rental; reflections of the order of listings in the 1391 rental can be seen in the 1398 account, although the latter is not as comprehensive. By that date the borough had added a grain mill and a fulling mill to its properties.
Light has been thrown upon the history of some tenements by those surviving of the deeds that the borough acquired along with the properties themselves. The 1398/99 chamberlains' account has also been helpful, and I append a few notes from this in blue text. Updates from the 1424 rental are similarly given as notes in blue text. Items in the 1424 document parts of which also reflect the ordering in the 1391 rental but seemingly not in that of 1391 (at least, not clearly identifiable with a 1391 item) are appended as a separate table following the 1391 rental; N.B. these are only extracts. For interest and comparison, I give at bottom of this page a list of the Gild Merchant income from property, extracted from the 1385/86 financial account of the Gild scabins.
It will be noted in that most cases property values appear to have fallen during the 1390s, but by 1424 some had recovered to the 1391 level. On the other hand, around that later period increasing expenditures on repairs and renovations were becoming necessary and several tenants were taken to task for not fulfilling their obligations in that regard. In 1434 the borough finally appointed an officer to take responsibility for supervision and upkeep of community-owned tenements.
Readers should beware of thinking that the tenants, lessees or farmers of the properties were necessarily personally resident therein.
|Rental of all rents belonging to the community, made at Michaelmas in the 15th year of King Richard II, together with the reversion of rents of tenements and lands [? the last four words are faded and difficult to read] with [payments of] rents resolute for the same.|
|Rents of assize|
|Stonegate||John de Brunham for a tenement flanked by the tenement of the
Prior of Lynn to the south, and the tenement of John Chaundeler to the
[Brunham is best known as Margery Kempe's father. He was still the tenant in 1398. William Spire held for 12d in 1424.]
|John Chaundeler [deleted and "Richard Peyntour of
London" substituted] for a tenement flanked by the tenement of
John Brunham to the south and the tenement of Thomas de Massingham to
[John Kenynghale was the tenant in 1398. Benedict Norwold held for 12d in 1424.]
|Skinner Row||William Foot for a tenement flanked by the tenement of John
de Dounham brazier to the west and the tenement of Margaret de Betele to
[Thomas Scarlet was tenant, paying 14s., in 1424; his neighbours were Alan de Dounham (w.) and Thomas Spicer (e.).]
|Briggate||Robert Gryme chaplain for a tenement once of Giles Gryme,
flanked by the tenement recently of John Shancel to the north and the
tenement of John de Brunham to the south.
[He was still the tenant in 1398; judging from a 1403 feoffment, he may have been holding as a trustee for the dower rights of Gile's widow, Margaret. Thomas Selby was tenant in 1417. Robert Gyle held for 20s. in 1424; the heirs of Nicholas de Geyton mason then held the tenement to the north.]
|Purfleet Lane||Richard Denby for a tenement flanked by the tenement of the
same [Richard] to the west and the tenement of John
Home to the east.
[He was still the tenant in 1398 and in 1424, although Hugh Home had succeeded John Home by the latter date.]
|Mercer Row||John Home [deleted and "John Mafey" substituted]
for a shop once of William de Ellingham flanked by the tenement
of John Creyke to the north and the tenement of Peter Barbour to the
[John Gryme had succeeded Mafey by 1424, paying 8s., with Bartholomew Systerne (n.) and Robert Sutton draper (s.) his neighbours.]
|John Kempe [deleted and "Simon Kempe" substituted]
for a tenement recently of Thomas Bury flanked by the tenement
of Simon de Colkirke to the north and vacant land of the heirs of Roger
de Buttele to the south.
[John Kempe was father-in-law to Margery Kempe; he died in 1393. Simon Kempe (son of John) was in possession by 1398, and probably upon the death of his father. In 1424 William Spyr was tenant for 2s. and he also held the tenement to the north; Roger Galyon had held the tenement to the south (until his death ca.1418).]
|Gresemarket||Cecilia de Massingham [deleted and "Thomas Lord" substituted] for a tenement flanked by the tenement of Thomas de Couteshale to the east and the messuage of Thomas Lord to the west.||2s.|
|Thomas Lord for a messuage flanked by the tenement of the
said Cecilia to the east and a tenement once of William Hobeys to the
[At some time before 1424, the two properties in Gresemarket were combined and William Whappelod was the tenant; in 1424 William Waterden was holding them for 3s.; his neighbours were Walter Barbour (w.) and George Holkham (e.)]
|Ratton Row||Agnes Crede for a tenement once of Robert Curre flanked by
the tenement of Thomas de Waterden to the west and diverse cottages of
John Wace and associates to the east.
[She was still the tenant in 1398. Robert Burgeys held in 1424 for 4s.; on the grounds of old age, he retired from the office of constable in May 1424 (40 years after becoming a freeman) and his death required a replacement to be elected to the jurats in November. The rental shows no sign of awareness of his death this document was not updated in the way the 1391 rental was.]
|Tenements demised at fee farm|
|John Waryn [deleted and "Thomas Abnale" substituted]
for a tenement flanked by the tenement of
Robert Braunch to the north and the
tenement once of Hugh Folkard to the east.
[This was one of the Burghard properties and was leased in 1379 to John Waryn and Adam de Aylesham (alias Waryn). Documents associated with Folkard's tenement in Butcher Row (see below) state that Waryn was operating a tavern there; this may have been named "The Bull" which, together with the early fourteenth century family after which "Bullweresrowe" (alias Butcher Row) was named, suggest that sale of livestock or meat had long been associated with this location. Aylesham and Abnale were tenants in 1402. Abnale was sole tenant in 1424 for 36s.8d. and still in 1428. The flanking tenement of the Braunch family, or perhaps a rent therefrom, also came into community hands, at some time after 1429.]
|Briggate||John Lokke [deleted and "Margery Lok" substituted]
for a tenement flanked by the tenement of John de Brunham to the
north and a tenement of John Lokke to the south.
[Lokke died in 1393; he had probably sold this tenement to the community after suffering severe mercantile losses in 1388. (A young) Thomas Lok, John's grandson, was tenant in 1424 for 12s.; he also held the tenement to the south (two items down).]
|Thomas Hilberworthe [deleted and "Simon Kempe"
substituted] for a tenement flanked by the tenement of the said
Thomas to the south and a tenement of John Scot to the
[This item ought to be reversed with the one that follows, in terms of topographical sequence. Kempe was the tenant in 1398. Thomas Belleyeter held in 1424 for 20s.; his neighbours were John Bryghtzeve (n.) and the master of the hospital of St. John (s.).]
|Robert de Fransham for a tenement flanked by the tenement of
Thomas de Couteshale to the north and a tenement once of John Scot to the
[This tenement had previously been held by Robert's father Geoffrey de Fransham (died ca.1391) and by John Grantham (who received the lease in 1379 and likely held it until his death in 1384). The lease to Grantham indicates that the tenement was on the west side of Briggate and that Couteshale's was on the corner of Wingate; Grantham also held the property to the rear (west). Thomas Lok was tenant in 1424 for 20s.; his neighbours were John Bryghtzeve (s.) and John Bury vintner (n.).]
|Pillory Lane||Denise widow of John Chaundeler [deleted but
substitution is illegible] for diverse shops flanked by
[the tenement of] Alice S[wanton] to the east
and the tenement recently of Buttele to the west.
[By 1388 the community had acquired these 5 shops, saving the life right of Denise, widow of John de London chandler. See the Reversions section. They were on the north side of the lane. From 1409 John Thoresby held them; in 1419 he sought release from the farm and the corporation appointed a committee to make sure the properties were in good condition, before releasing Thoresby. However, after this good review, he then took up the lease again. Thoresby was still the tenant for 24s. in 1424., when the properties were described as 5 renters or cottages; Andrew Swanton was his neighbour to the east.]
|Gresemarket||Richard Methewolde for a tenement flanked by the tenement of
Agnes de Couteshale to the west and the tenement of John Spayne to the
[Robert Bowyer was the tenant in 1424 for 30s.]
|At the Friars
|Robert Burgeys lister for a tenement flanked by his tenement
to the east and the tenement of Andrew de Swanton to the
[Lister or litester was a medieval name for a dyer. He was still the tenant in 1398 and in 1419, when the tenement was described as "once of William Derham". Nicholas Aldirman had succeeded Burgeys by 1424, at the same rent.]
|John Bolt [deleted and "Richard Bole lister"
substituted] for a tenement flanked by the tenement of Richard
Dun to the west and a tenement of Elwis de Witton [? faded]
to the east.
[The was possibly the tenement with a quay on Purfleet in which John Bole et al. were enfeoffed in 1379. Richard Bole, or Beale, was followed (by 1419) as tenant by Bartholomew Petipas. Nicholas Martyn was tenant in 1424, for 33s.4d.; his neighbours were Edmund Bonet (e.) and (until recently) Thomas atte Lathe (w.) earlier Robert de Docking.]
|Thomas de Brunham of Happisburgh [deleted and
"William Amberwyk" substituted] for a tenement flanked by the
tenement of John Kempe to the east and a tenement of John Mafey to the
[Amberwyk was the tenant in 1398. Thmas atte Lathe held in 1424 for 12s., having been preceded in tenancy by Amberwyk and (earlier) Robert de Docking; his neighbours were John Kempe (son of the 1391 tenant) (e.) and Edmund Bonet (w.).]
|Geoffrey Gaysele for a tenement flanked by the tenement of
dom. John de Docking chaplain to the west and a tenement of John Mafey
to the east.
[He was still the tenant in 1398.]
|Webster Row||Robert Chynche [deleted and "Thomas Waterden"
substituted] for a tenement flanked by the tenement of Hugh
Holbech to the north and the tenement of Thomas de Waterden to the
[John de Jernemuth was the lessee in 1384 of 2 messuages on the east side of the Row. Waterden became the tenant in 1395, was still so in 1424 (for 12s.) when the property is described as 2 cottages or renters, and apparently so until his death, since his executor was dealing with the property in 1437; Holbech was still the northern neighbour in 1424.]
|Purfleet Lane||John de Walsingham lister [deleted and "Simon Kempe
for 5 marks" substituted] for a tenement flanked by the tenement
of John de Brunham to the west and the tenement of Robert Bailly to the
east, together with a quay there.
[Walsingham leased this from the borough in 1386, probably for the £4 annually he was paying in 1388 when the property was referred to as formerly belonging to William de Ellingham. Kempe was the tenant in 1398, and was followed by John Brekerop (who had married Kempe's widow) who was still holding in 1422 but resisting paying arrears of the farm. Robert Narburgh held in 1424 for 53s.4d; his neighbours were John Chaundeler (w.) and Robert Hamond chaplain (e.).]
|Butcher Row||John Body for a tenement flanked by community tenements on
either side, the which was once of Hugh Folkard while he was
[Folkard acquired this from Sir Thomas fitzRichard in 1364, and granted it to mayor and burgesses in 1382, when reference was made to John Waryn's tavern to the west (see above). However, community possession does not seem to have been secured until further legal transactions in 1384. The first reference to the borough farming it out is in the 1384/85 chamberlains' account; stalls were associated with the property. Why the flanking tenements do not appear to have been listed in the rental is a mystery, unless they were among those listed below in the section "Stalls next to St. Margaret's cemetery"; (see the 1424 rental extracts below for all three). Body was still tenant in 1408.]
|Pillory Lane||Robert de Kent [deleted and "John Lakinghithe and
John Waryn" substituted, the latter name itself scored through]
for a shop with curtilage flanked by the tenement of John de
Houton to the east and diverse shops of Alice Swanton to the
[A curtilage was a piece of open land adjacent to a building, such as a yard or courtyard. The shop was on the north side of the lane; before coming into the hands of the borough it was owned by John de Dunham (1376). Lakinghithe was the borough's tenant in 1398. It was possibly this property that in 1424 was described as a cottage, rented for 7s. by John Baker porter.]
[The figure has been deleted and £19.4s substituted, which would represent the correct total, rather than a later calculation based on the inserted changes in values.]
|List [pagina] of tenements, shops, stalls, marshes and pastures leased annually|
|Butcher Row||Thomas de Walsingham butcher for 1 stall.||13s.4d
|North gates||Henry Oldecorn [deleted and "John Aleyn" substituted] for 1 stall.||12s.
|Hamon Bocher for 1 stall.||10s.
|John Tydde for the tenement of Margaret Folkard.||36s.8d|
|John Tydde for 1 stall in front of the said tenement.||16s.
|William Yorke for 1 tenement and 1 stall in front
[An inserted note indicates that this and the previous two items were (subsequently) held by Tydde for £4.13s.4d.]
|William Pye [deleted and "William Walpole carpenter" substituted] for 1 tenement.||14s.|
|John Wilowes for 1 tenement.
[Later additions indicate that William Walpole held this and the previous item together for 40s. in 1393, and that later still Richard Clerk was the tenant.]
|South gates||Nicholas Taillour for 1 tenement, garden and
[At some point in the mid-1380s, Taillour (alias Tydde) who was the gatekeeper (1386-1401) leased this property for 10 years; it had previously been held by Alan Lister (a John Lister having been gatekeeper 1372-83). It was probably the property being leased out by the borough by 1367, when described as at the South Bretask (but in 1370 as at the south gates); at that time the land was not built on and was fetching only 10s. This property is listed in the 1424 rental, at the same rent, but no holder is mentioned; possibly it was understood as still being held by the gatekeeper.]
|Common Staith||Thomas Heryng [deleted and "William Caus"
substituted] for the farm of a small boat there.
[This would have been for a ferry-boat and the right to operate it across the Ouse. Hugh de Ellingham, who died sometime in the mid-1380s, bequeathed it to the community. Herying was farming it from at least 1388. In 1424 the farm was valued at 20s.; no farmer was named but it had recently been John Spicer. ]
|John Cokfield [deleted and "John Jobard
chaplain for 12d." substituted] for farm of chapel and
[The 1376/77 chamberlains' account refers to 2s. received from the farm of a garden next to the hermitage outside the East Gate (it lay to the east of Rondeshill); but see next item. In 1424 Jobard was still tenant, at the same rent, of what was described as a hermitage or chapel with garden. John Wesenham took over the farm of the hermitage (for 6s.8d) in 1428.]
|Robert Pulter [deleted and "Alice wife
of" substituted] for farm of pasture.
[The 1388/89 chamberlains' account indicates that in 1386 Thomas Curson and Robert Pulter had taken a 10-year lease on this pasture, which was by the hermitage.]
|INTERLINED: Thomas Morton [deleted
and "Thomas Trussebut 2s.6d" substituted] for pasture.
[This was part of a property house, pasture and arable land at Dowshill acquired in 1388 from Richard de Houton's executors and then leased to Morton, Lynn's town clerk, as a package for 16s.; however, Dowshill to the north of the town can only be considered "outside the east gates" by a stretch of the imagination.]
|William Draper for farm of a cottage and
[This entry was voided because the community sold the property.]
|Henry Cornish for farm of a parcel of herbage at the rear of St. John's.||20d.
|Stonegate||Semela Parker for a shop.||6s.8d|
|John de Wormegeye for a shop.||6s.8d|
|Richard Waterleder [deleted and "Stephen Lucas" substituted] for a shop.||6s.8d|
|John Shepe [deleted and "Balteys"
substituted] for a shop.
[These four entries for Stonegate are jointly referred to by two subsequent additions: "John Brunham has them for 20s." and "now 16s.".Brunham was still the tenant of the 4 shops in 1398. In 1424 they were described as 4 renters and were still leased for 20s., but no lessee is identified.]
|Burghard Lane||William Lystere for 1 tenement.
[This was one of the Burghard properties.]
|INTERLINED: Thomas Wryght for 1 shop.||10s.|
|Diverse tenants for 1 tenement.||40s.|
|Margaret Colyn for 1 tenement.||16s.|
|Roger Spicer for 1 cottage.||4s.|
|John Smyth for 1 cottage.
[These entries for Colyn, Spicer and Smyth are jointly superseded by a subsequent addition: "Richard de Thorpe 20s." Thorpe was the tenant of the tenement in Damgate and 3 cottages in Pakker Lane in 1398. In 1419 he was granted what appears to have been a renewal of the farm of 8 tenements and 4 cottages on the corner of Pakker Lane, but tried to back out of the arrangement a few days later; threatened with the collection of substantial arrears (£18), he shortly after reversed his position again and sought a renewal of the lease. In 1422 he was in trouble again, both for the arrears still owing and for failing to have carried out renovations on the properties. By May 1424 his son, Richard Thorpe junior had taken over, from his aged and ailing father, responsibility for the property and repairs thereto (the arrears were mostly pardoned); it was he who is listed in the rental drawn up in September, holding for 20s. what was then described as a tenement on the corner of Damgate and Pakker Lane.]
|John de Kyrketon for 1 cottage.||4s.|
|Ratton Row||Roger Spirlyng [deleted and "Agnes Mouth" substituted] for 1 cottage.||4s.|
|John Leek for 1 cottage.||4s.|
|Cecilia Shakhore for 1 cottage.||4s.|
|Agnes de Bury for 1 cottage.||4s.|
|Thomas Clerk for 1 cottage.||3s.4d||Agatha Rideout for 1 cottage.||4s.|
|Thomas de Gedney for 1 cottage.||4s.|
|John de Bricham [deleted and "Chapman" substituted] for 1 cottage.||5s.
|William Derby [deleted and "Cecilia Michel" substituted] for 1 cottage.||4s.4d|
|Agnes Mouth [deleted and "John Betteson" substituted] for 1 cottage.||4s.4d|
|John Colyn [deleted and "Carbrigge" entered superscript] for 1 cottage.||4s
|John Neketon [deleted and "Lode" substituted] for 1 cottage.||16s
|John Chamberleyn for 1 cottage.||4s.|
|Anna Doke for 1 cottage.||4s.|
|Alan atte Brygge [deleted and "John Moot" substituted] for 1 cottage.||4s.6d|
|John Burell for 1 cottage.||5s.|
|John Cranehouse for 1 cottage.
[All these entries for Ratton Row are jointly superseded by a subsequent addition: "Andrew Swanton for £4"; at a later he claimed to have held the farm since 1395/96. Swanton was still the tenant of 21 cottages and 9 curtilages there in 1398 in fact, until 1419, when the borough authorities released him from the farm, the cottages having fallen into disrepair. Bartholomew Systerne, who owned property immediately to the north, then took over the farm for 53s.4d annually; in the 1424 rental he is still found farming the 22 adjoining cottages there for the same amount.]
|Julian Scryven [deleted and "Geoffrey Pouchemaker" substituted] for 1 cottage.||4s.
|Thomas Fower for 2 cottages.||8s.|
[The figure has been deleted and £24 substituted; neither agrees with my calculations of just over £26.9s., but the numerous alterations and uncertainty about precisely when any alteration was made renders any calculation difficult.]
|Curtilages in Ratton Row and
places [called] tenters
[Curtilages and tenters were parcels of open land, probably used for some kind of industrial or artisan activity. Tenters seem to have been located to the east and southeast of Ratton Row.]
|Thomas Sherman for 1 parcel of curtilage.||8d.|
|William Waplode for 1 parcel of curtilage.||8d.|
|Bartholomew Cordewaner [deleted and "Geoffrey Evek shoemaker" substituted] for 1 parcel of curtilage.||12d.|
|Thomas Fower [deleted and "William Haireman" substituted] for 1 parcel of curtilage.||10d.|
|John Skulton for 1 parcel of curtilage.||18d.|
|John Hardy for 1 parcel of curtilage.||18d.|
|William Lystere [deleted and "John Skulton" substituted] for 1 parcel of curtilage.||18d.
|John Colyn for 1 parcel of curtilage.||2s.|
|William Blakeney for 1 tenter.||4s.|
|[William Blakeney?] for 1 tenter.
[The tenter entries have been voided.]
[The figure (which is correct) has been deleted and 10s.2d substituted.]
Thomas Couteshale holds them at farm for £9
[These properties were likely those sold ca.1390 by the executors of Cecilia, widow of John de Couteshale senior; Thomas was one of their sons.]
|Gresemarket||John de Brynkelowe for 1 tenement.||24s.|
|John Juwell [deleted and "Taillour" substituted] for 1 tenement.||24s.
|Thomas Sadeler for 1 tenement.||46s.8d|
|William Runham for 1 tenement.||33s.4d|
|Robert Furbour for 1 tenement.||30s.|
|Jews Lane||Alice Herman [deleted and "John Watteson" substituted] for 1 tenement.||28s.|
|Robert Dekes [deleted and "John Chandeller" substituted ca.1395] for 1 tenement.||16s.
|John Plesant [deleted and "William Candeller" substituted] for 1 tenement.||32s.|
|Alice Candeller [deleted and "Andrew Denby" substituted] for 1 tenement.||14s.|
|Henry Oldecorn [deleted and "John Aleyn" substituted] for 1 tenement.||30s.|
|John Watteson [deleted and "Bole" substituted] for 1 tenement.||10s.|
|INTERLINED: Also he [Couteshale?]
holds a tenement in Jews Lane which Robert Pykerel held for
[In 1424 a tenement with garden, once of Cecilia de Couteshale and afterwards of Robert Pykerel chaplain, had a rent of 24s but no tenant identified; it was flanked by the tenement once of Henry de Betele to the west and the tenement of the heirs of Thomas Hunt to the east. Pykerell had been Cecilia's chaplain and executor and had been bequeathed the property for life, in return for celebrating for her soul.]
[The figure (which is correct, ignoring the interlined item) has been deleted and £14.4s substituted.]
|Stalls next to St. Margaret's
[This was the butchers' market. A few of the stalls were acquired ca. 1365 from townsmen and from Sir Thomas Beaupre, but the majority in 1369/70 from Sir Thomas fitzRichard. The rent resolute owed the Bishop (see below) was due from the former batch. By 1421 some butchers had transferred their place of business to Jews Lane or to their homes, to the damage of the butchers' market, and it was necessary to warn them against selling meat elsewhere than in the market; two years later a general ordinance to this effect was required. The 1424 rental seems to show that this was successful.]
|William Hayward [deleted and "John de Tyd jun." substituted] for 1 stall.||20s.|
|Henry Oldecorn for 1 stall.
[This entry was voided.]
|William Dobbes [deleted and "John Watteson" substituted] for 1 stall.||16s.|
|Herman Hayward [deleted and "William Pye" substituted] for 1 stall.||16s.|
|Robert Dekes [deleted and "Richard Bocher" substituted; "Simon Body" also added] for 1 stall.||8d.|
|John Brown for 1 stall.
[This entry was voided.]
|John Tyd jun. [deleted and "John Glover" substituted] for 1 stall.||16s.|
|Roger Bocher [deleted and "John Balteys" substituted] for 1 stall.||13s.4d|
|Richard Clerc [deleted and "Thomas Barker" substituted; "Herman Hayward" also added] for 1 stall.||8s.|
|John Watteson [deleted and "Richard Clerc" substituted] for 1 stall.||8s.|
|John Tameworth [deleted and "John Kyng" substituted; "Walter Kyng" also added] for 1 stall.||8s.|
|Roger Bailly for 1 stall.||6s.8d|
|Roger de Geywode for 1 stall.||6s.8d|
|John Bay [deleted and "Tameworth" substituted] for 1 stall.||6s.8d|
[The figure is correct. See below for the 1424 listing.]
|Coventry, near the
[This was apparently property acquired from the Coventry family a family not very prominent or long-lasting.]
|Agnes Gryme for the principal tenement recently
of M. Coventre. [The added phrase "Thomas Brygge for 5 marks"
appears to relate to this entry]
[The tenement was described in 1337 as on the west side of Briggegate and north side of the common way leading to the Gildhall; i.e. it faced the Saturday Market. William de Coventry was working on acquiring it by 1353 and secured his possession through certain (typical) legal transactions in 1364. The borough acquired it again through a group of burgess representatives from the executors of William's widow in 1391. Brygge was still the tenant in 1398 of the tenement and a shop, which were opposite the St. Margaret's aqueduct, as well as of 4 other shops there - presumably those in the following items. In 1424 John Stephenson butcher held a tenement with a stall opposite St. Margaret's aqueduct, for 26s.8d and the property was categorized as being in Briggate.]
|Nicholas Barbour for 1 shop. [The added phrase "26s. Richard Clerc holds" relates to this entry]||20s.|
|John de Lakinghithe for 1 shop.||13s.4d|
|John Betteson [deleted and "Roger Mercer" substituted] for 1 shop.||12s.
|Maurice Baxter for 1 shop.||3s.|
|Roger Baxter for 1 stall.||3s.|
|Lazarshill||John de Brunham [deleted and "Ralph
Bedyngham" substituted] for pasture next to the Round
[Brunham was still the tenant in 1398, when the tower was said to be near the north ditch. Lazarshill was in the northeast corner of the town, and the tower may have been part of the east gate. The same rent applied in 1424 but no tenant is mentioned.]
[The figure (which is correct) has been deleted and £4.12s.8d substituted.]
[These were rents paid BY the community on property it owned.]
|To the Bishop of Norwich for the rent of butchers stalls next to St. Margaret's cemetery.||16d.|
|To the same for a close.
[This rent due from "Le Scluse" (known by 1424 as the North Close) is an item in the earliest surviving chamberlains' roll (1319/20), as is the next item re. Gaywood water. Until the butchers stalls were acquired, these two properties appear to have been the only ones from which the borough was burdened with rents resolute.]
|Gaywood||To the same for watering at Gaywood.||4d.|
|To the same for a pasture called Rondeshill
outside the east gates.
[Rondeshill lay between the east gates and a mill at the northeast corner of the town. The pasture was being rented out for 4s. in 1424.]
|To the same for a marsh there, once of Richard de
[This was presumably part of the property acquired in 1388 from Houton's executors (see above).]
|[Butcher Row?]||To the same for a tenement recently of Hugh Folkard.||8d.|
|To the same for a tenement once of Robert de Shuldham and recently of Margaret Coventre.||2s.6d|
|Gresemarket||To the same for a tenement once of Geoffrey
Denby, now of Cecilia Couteshale.
[Cecilia, widow of John Couteshale sen. died in 1389; the Cecilia mentioned here as if alive and holding property in 1391 may have been the Cecilia de Alemannia who received a bequest in the widow's will.]
|Jews Lane||To the same for a tenement once of John Mayn.||21d.|
|To the same for a tenement in which John
Couteshale sen. lived.
[According to his widow's will, the capital tenement of herself (and presumably her husband) lay between Gresemarket and Jews Lane.]
|Burghard Lane||To the same for a tenement in which William Lystere dwells.||6d.|
|Damgate||To the Prior of Lynn for a tenement in Damgate
next to Pakker Lane.
[This was one of the Burghard properties.]
|Gresemarket||To the Prior of Lynn for a tenement recently of Cecilia de Couteshale.||16d.|
|To the Prior of Westacre for a cottage.
[This was one of the Burghard properties.]
|South gates||To the Prior of Westacre for a tenement next to the gates.||18d.|
|To the collector of the leet of South Lynn for
[Evidence from 1405 indicates that this property was near the South gate and probably the same as in the above item; the rent was owed to the leet of South Lynn itself.]
|Gresemarket||To Henry de Betele for a tenement next to that recently of John de Couteshale jun.||12s.|
|[Butcher Row?]||To the Abbess of Chateriss for a tenement recently of Hugh Folkard.||13s.4d|
|Gresemarket||To the Abbot of Sawtry for a tenement recently of Cecilia de Couteshale.||12d.|
|Lazarshill||To the Prior of Chosele for pasture next to the round tower.||12d.|
[I make the figure 54s.11d.]
|Reversions of tenements, curtilages and rents of assize|
|Burghard Lane||The tenement in which William Lystere dwells,
with tenement and quay opposite; to revert to the community after the
death of Thomas de Kenynghale.
[Kenynghale was the husband and executor of Margaret, daughter of John Burghard. He continued to have life rights in some of his late wife's property; the borough was paying him a £13.6.8d annuity, as part of the deal, until about 1408. When combined with the costs of an annual mass for the Burghards and of maintenance of the properties the borough appears to have been running a deficit from this bequest.]
|Ratton Row||Two cottages which, for the life of Thomas de Kenynghale, are inhabited by paupers. Value of their farm:||6s.8d|
|An annuity held by the said Thomas shall also revert after his death.||£13.6s.8d|
|Damgate||From Robert de Waterden, after the death of Alice
Furbour, from a tenement flanked by the tenement of Robert to the east,
the Hospital of St. John Baptist to the west, and the highway to the
[This reversion was acquired in the mid-1380s.]
|Damgate||From Thomas Paynot, after the death of Alice Furbour, from a tenement flanked by the tenement of William Bawsey to the west and the tenement of William de Snetesham, now steward of Lynn, to the east.||4s.|
|From John de Welle [deleted and
"Lakinghithe for 2 marks" substituted], after the death of
Alice Furbour, from a tenement flanked by the his tenement to the west
and the tenement of Thomas Drewe to the east.
[Lakinghithe was the tenant in 1398.]
|Butcher Row||From a tenement in which John Tydde sen. dwells, with a garden, in Butcher Row near St. Margaret's church, after the death of Margaret widow of H. Folkard.||40s.|
|Pillory Lane||From 5 shops flanked by the shops of Alice de Swanton to the east and the tenement of the heirs of Buttele to the west, after the death of Denise Chaundeler.||20s.|
|Jews Lane||From a tenement, after the death of Robert Pykerell chaplain.||[no value
|Jews Lane||From a garden flanked by a tenement of the community to the west and the tenement of the Henry de Betele to the east, after the death of the said Robert.||[no value
|A rent, after the death of Alice widow of Adam
[In his will (1390) Adam prescribed that all the properties he had left his widow for life be sold and from the proceeds mayor and community were to have enough to buy 20s. annual rent.]
|A ferry-right, after the death of
[blank] daughter of Robert
Braunch deceased, for which the community must celebrate annually
one mass in St. Margaret's for the souls of Robert, his wife, his sons
[This arrangement was made in 1378 by the daughter Joan, the only offspring mentioned in Robert's will; she was still alive in 1399. The right was valued in 1398 at 16s. In 1424 its farm was valued at 24s.; no farmer was named, although Alice Dymmok had recently held the farm.]
|Memorandum that the tenements below were leased out in 1394/95|
|Damgate||John Lakinghithe, one tenement.||43s.4d|
|Butcher Row||William Walpole, a house.||40s.|
|[Butcher Row?]||A tenement which John Tydde and Wilowes now lease.||[no value
|Purfleet Lane||A tenement with a shop, to a certain Walter.||[no value
|Jews Lane||A tenement with garden, leased as a result of the death of Robert Pykerell.||[no value
|At St. James'||John Clerk for 1 cottage.||5s.|
|Matilda Geynesbergh for 1 cottage.||5s.|
|William Taillour for 1 cottage.||5s.|
|Richard Porter for 1 cottage.||6s.|
|Robert Salisbury for 1 garden.||6s.8d|
go to top of page
|Rental of all rents [2 or 3 words illegible due to damage] of the community of Lynn, renewed 17 September in the time of John Permonter mayor.|
|Rents of assize|
|Damgate||Edmund Massyngham for a tenement once of Thomas Paynot flanked by the tenement of John Mafey (e.) and the tenement of John Dalham (w.).||4s.|
|William Norfolk draper for a tenement once of Robert Waterden.||9s.|
|Baxter Row||Thomas Waterden for a tenement once of Margaret
Sharyngton opposite "le Baxtercunte" [conduit?].
[The conduit may have been the one running along Damgate past the north end of Baxter Row. Sharyngton was Waterden's mother-in-law; she died in 1392. Waterden was renting the tenement from the community by 1398.]
|Gresemarket||Walter Aleyn for two shops.||26s.8d|
|Hugh Sporier for a tenement.||24s.|
|Thomas Scarlet for a tenement flanked by a
tenement of the community (w.) and a tenement recently of John Broun
and now of John Copnote (e.).
[It is probable that some or all of these 3 items were listed in 1391 in the "Couteshale's" section.]
|Jews Lane||Thomas Scarlet for a tenement flanked by the garden of John Permonter (w.) and the tenement of John Perche (e.). And for another tenement, flanked by the tenement of the heirs of Henry de Betele, now of Walter Reyms (e.).||33s.4d|
|John de Wesenham for a tenement flanked by his own
tenement (e.) and by the tenement recently of Thomas Hunte (w.).
[Wesenham claimed to have been farming this since 1395/96 (for 33s.4d); at the time of this claim, in 1419, he was 7 years in arrears of payment of the farm. Because of money owed him by the corporation, it pardoned him the arrears and reduced his farm to 26s.8d.]
|Damgate||Walter Thornage for a tenement flanked by the tenement of Ellen Ferour (w.) and the tenement of William Waterden (e.).||26s.8d|
|The master of St. John's hospital for an empty plot of land behind the hospital.||12d.|
|Sparrow Hall||Thomas Lok for a tenement called Sparrow Hall
opposite the Charnel, flanked by the tenement of Thomas Burgh (n.) and
the lane (s.).
[The Charnel was in St. Margaret's churchyard.]
|Butcher Row||Robert Pynder for half a tenement with a stall.||32s.|
|John Petyclerk for the eastern half of the
tenement (above) with a stall.
[The tenement jointly held by Pynder and Petyclerk was to the east of the Braunch and Abnale properties listed in the 1391 rental as flanking the tenement in Briggegate, opposite St. Margarets]
|Nicholas Martyn for a tenement with two stalls,
flanked by the tenement of Petyclerk and Pynder (w.).
[This is the property held by John Body in 1391 (see the "fee farm" section).]
|Simon Body for a tenement with 2 stalls,
flanked by the tenement of Nicholas Martyn (w.)
[Body, a butcher, leased this in 1408, when it was described as a messuage with 2 stalls and a garden.]
|Baxter Row||John Saltwyn for a tenement.||13s.4d|
|Fee farm leases|
|Gresemarket||Walter Aleyn for two shops.||26s.8d|
|Butcher Row||Robert Pynder for 2 stalls.||18s.4d|
|Thomas Bateman butcher for 1 stall.||7s.|
|John Perche butcher for 1 stall.||16s.|
|John Parfey butcher for 1 stall.||14s.|
|William Walpole butcher for 1 stall.||14s.|
|William Pye butcher for 1 stall.||14s.|
|William Fraunceys butcher for 1 stall.||8s.|
|William Keele butcher recently held a stall.||10s.|
|Geoffrey Somerby butcher for 1 stall.||14s.|
|Thomas Seyver butcher recently held a stall.||8s.|
|Henry Oldecorn butcher for 1 stall.||5s.|
|Robert Makerell butcher recently held a stall.||5s.|
|Richard Gylberd butcher for 1 stall.||5s.|
|Ralph Shirewynd butcher for 1 stall.||5s.|
|Clement Makerell butcher for 1 stall.||5s.|
|Thomas Bocher recently held a stall.||5s.|
|Briggate||John Beelson chapman for a tenement.||13s.4d|
|Richard Rust for a tenement.||13s.4d|
|Peter Palgrave for a tenement.||26s.8d|
|Gresemarket||William Stowe joiner for a tenement.
[Possibly listed in 1391 in the "Couteshale's" section.]
|Fincham Street||John Feltewell lister for a tenement flanked by the tenement recently of John Berewyk bowyer (e.) and the tenement of John Kempe (w.).||60s.|
|William Furbour for a parcel of garden by the chapel and hermitage of St. John.||18d.|
|A pasture under the walls, extending within the town from the North Close to Mill Fleet and beyond to Scales Mill gates.||4s.|
|Mill||John Wynch miller for a mill leased him with
2 cottages and gardens opposite St. James chapel. (Of the rent, 20s.
belongs to the Bishop and 20s. to the Prior of Lynn).
[This would have been the grain mill, whose site was acquired by the town from the Bishop, for an annual farm of 20s., in August 1392. The king's ratification of this agreement, the following month, indicated the site (to be selected by the burgesses) was to be on Millfleet where Swagges Mill had once stood, or between that site and the Gannock gate (one of the lesser gates on the east boundary of the town). The burgesses were admonished: not to damage the fleet when excavating for the new mill; not to block the fleet's course, which ran eastwards to the Bishop's demesne at Mintling; not to allow the mill to back up water so that floods resulted, as had happened with Swagges Mill; and to ensure the causeway (raised road) on the north side of the fleet was maintained. Robert Perch miller had leased the mill for three years in July 1424, but he later complained that bakers and others were not bringing corn to him to have it ground; in November the borough released him from the arrangement and leased the mill to Wynch for seven years. Wynch probably encountered the same problem for, in March 1426 the borough issued an order for all bakers to grind their grain at the town mill; but the problem persisted and, shortly after the end of Wynch's term, the borough passed an ordinance obliging townsmen to take their grain to the town mill. The cottages and gardens had been associated with the farm of the mill since at least 1399.]
|Other rents belonging
to the community
[Additions, probably ca.1426-28.]
|The Chequer||The heirs of William Spire for an empty plot
of land on the north side of their tenement.
[Spire died in 1427. The Chequer was a street leading south from the Tuesday Market.]
|The mayor and community for a new extension of a common fleet into an empty plot lying between the road and the lands of the hospital of St. John and the Friars Preacher (w.) and the meadow of John Ashenden (e.), extending between Sewolds Bridge (n.) and the road lying by John's meadow (s.).||2d.|
|Webster Row||John Waryn for a lane north of his tenement.||6d.|
|Richard Eberard plumber for licence to build on the common fleet east of his tenement.||4d.|
go to top of page
|[Extracts from] The account of John Dunham, William Wyth, Thomas de Waterden and Thomas Fawkes, scabins of Holy Trinity Gild, 28 May 1385 to 17 June 1386.|
|Rents of assize, farms of houses, and ferry liberties|
|Rents of assize and the account of the ferry
[right] belonging to the gild.
[Operation of the ferry to West Lynn was farmed to Thomas Outlagh for 13s.4d. This was probably the ferry sold to the gild in 1323 by William de Benecroft and Henry de Betele.]
|The farm of shops on the east side of the common
quay and of the tenement next to the gildhall.
[The individual (i.e. unamalgamated) accounts of each scabin, which also survive for this year, indicate that the gild received rents from the following structures on east, north and south sides of the quay (the west side being the river): 11 cellar/solars, 2 cellars, 1 solar, and 9 shops. Roger Paxman was the tenant of the property next to the gildhall.]
|The farm of all cellars with solars on the south
side of the common quay, with shops at the Watergate.
[The Watergate was a lane leading from the Tuesday Market to the common quay. The gild received rents from 11 shops there.]
|The farm of tenements and shops with quays in
[The properties from which the gild received rents included 1 booth with 2 cottages, 1 booth alone, and a tenement, all of which had part of a quay associated.]
|The farm of the tenement recently of William de
Swanton in Briggate.
[Lambert Draper was the tenant at this time.]
|The farm of all cellars and solars on the north side of the common quay, with the farm of the tenement recently of Sabina Blower opposite St. Margaret's.||£12.17s.8d|
|The farm of all gild houses in the
[The Woolmarket was a street heading eastwards to St. Nicholas' from the northeast corner of the Tuesday Market.]
|The farm of rents of Joan Costyn, widow of John Costyn, from various tenements, as appears in a rental made of the same, which he bequeathed to the gild.||£13.6s.9d|