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Topics for Appreciating Differences

Appreciating Differences is dedicated to the personal growth of individuals and promoting harmonious relationships between people. Appreciating Differences is also the name of an ongoing group in the Ottawa Area that has met since January 1997

Temperament is mainly concerned with behaviour and the motivation behind the behaviour. Jung/Myers theory is more converned with the inner mental dynamics of the individual. Interaction Styles looks at the ways we socially relate to one another. All three are related and have wide applications to ways of understanding the self, and how relationships and groups of people can learn to appreciate and get along better with one another.

Jack is no longer actively giving workshops and presentations. He is willing to administer the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® instrument and other personality insturments on an individual basis in his home in Almonte. 613-256-3276.

P.T. = Psychological Type or Personality Type: Carl Jung wrote a book called Psychological Types.  Katherine Briggs and her daughter Isabel Myers combined their own ideas with Jung's work and developed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® instrument. Others have also developed similar instruments but the MBTI® instrument has been the most researched and the most popular. For people to take the MBTI® instrument this is a workshop in itself. Experience shows that it is most important to include a follow-up topic to fully understand and integrate the results of the instrument.

Jung/Myers theory: This is the theory combining Jung and Myers ideas that describe the eight mental functions (cognitive processes) and the sixteen personality types (Jung/Myers personality types).

Enneagram Personality Types: The Enneagram also uses the term 'personality type'. These are quite distinct from the Jung/Myers personality types. Studies have been done correlating the two systems, but the correlations are usually rather low. Jung/Myers personality types gives an indication of the primary mental processes a person uses, while the Enneagram gives some insight into inner motivation as to what an individual thinks he or she needs to feel loved. Jung/Myers theory helps the individual recognize and appreciate his and her or potential, while the Enneagram points the way to inner wholeness.

Temperament: This program helps identify the four basic temperaments (a grouping of the 16 personality types into 4 groups of 4 types each - SP, SJ, NF and NT): Orange/Adventurous/Artisan-SP-Fox, Gold/Responsible/ Guardian-SJ-Beaver, Blue/ Harmonious/Idealist-NF-Dolphin, and Green/Curious/Rational-NT-Owl. In the workshops, graphics, questionnaires and group participation are used to help people identify their temperaments or colours. This in turn helps them understand themselves and others. Groups would need to do the basic workshop first and then make up a program of one or more additional topics. There are several programs that can be offered: Personality Dimension®, True Colors™, Self-Discovery Process™ or Appreciating Differences Thru Colours: The latter is my own version of understanding temperament. It is based on the work of David Keirsey and Linda Berens. It is an introductory program to help people determine their basic temperament. Usually, this is an introductory program that is followed by one or more programs below.

Interaction Styles: This is a basic workshop that helps people discover the way they interact with one another. This is a two-hour workshop.

Basic Workshop - 2 hours: So that people have a good grasp of their own Temperament or Colours and how they can use them. This is an enjoyable presentation using graphics and group participation.

Basic Presentation - Abbreviated: Some groups, because of time constraints, would prefer a shorter version that gives a taste of what Temperament is all about. This workshop would be from 45 minutes to 1 hour in length depending on the requirements of the group. This is for general information only and not intended to help determine individual temperaments.

Jung/Myers TheoryTopics: There are several Jung/Myers theory based instruments. The MBTI® instrument is the most widely utilized psychological questionnaire, helping individuals decide their preferences on four dimensions of behaviour: Extraversion/Introversion, Sensing/iNtuition, Thinking/Feeling, and Judging/Perceiving. While these preferences are only a part of one's personality, understanding your type and the meaning of someone else's type can be very useful in personal growth, intimate relationships, volunteer groups, and the wider world of work. Groups would need to do the basic workshop first and then make up a program of one or more additional topics.

Basic Workshop - 2 hours: Individuals can do the MBTI® instrument on their own before attending a presentation (the instrument is signed out to participants and scored by the facilitator) or it can be part of the presentation. This usually require additional time. An explanation of the eight preferences is given using overheads. There are also some group activities to help individuals understand the concepts.

Basic Presentation - Abbreviated: Some groups, because of time constraints, would prefer a shorter version that gives a taste of what Jung/Myers theory is all about. Another option is to have a presentation on one of the dimensions of behaviour, e.g. Extraversion - Introversion. These presentations would be from 45 minutes to 1 hour in length depending on the requirements of the group. (This presentation would not include the administration of the MBTI® instrument.)

Additional Temperament and Jung/Myers Theory Topics - Listed in Alphabetical Order

Addiction: For those dealing professionally with addiction or an individual coping with addiction, this session provides some interesting insights.

Anger: This workshop looks at how the four function pairs (ST, SF, NF, & NT) react to anger and strategies for each to control their anger.

Archetypes: Each of the 16 types is further modifed by the archetypes within all of us. This workshop is based on Carol Pearson's Awakening the Heroes within Us. This topic is based on the work of Jung.

Artisan: This is the Orange Temperament

Attention Deficit Disorder (& Hyperactive): There is no known correlation between P.T. but understanding type can help people to better manages this phenomenon.

Body Types and Psychological Types: There are some correlations between one's body type and psychological type.

Brain Types: Who Am I? Who Are You? (90 min. video) This interesting video shows the relationship of type to the way one thinks and one's specific physical skills.

Careers: There is a high correlation between specific types and careers. Knowing one's type helps make the choice of finding the most satisfying career, either as the first job or choosing a second career in later life.

Change, Coping with: When we are aware of how type relates to the many changes that we face, particularly within the corporate world, we can find more effective strategies we can use to not only survive but thrive.

College or University, Type at: Knowledge of one's type can be very helpful in choosing the best college or university, program, activities and how to study effectively.

Children: The Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children® was developed to use with children in grade 3 and up. Special vocabulary suitable for children is used.

Change, Coping with Change: How we react to change is related to our type. The stress of change can often trigger our Inferior function.

College or University, Type at: The type of college we attend, the majors we take and how we cope with the work load all are affected by our type.

Communication: Our knowledge and use of Jung/Myers theory greatly enhance our communication skills.

Conflict Resolution: Two kids fighting in the school yard or two major corporation fighting over a takeover bid still use their type when trying to settle things. Understanding type and how to use it more effectively can make the process more successful and less stressful.

Counselling Skills: This workshop looks at how Jung/Myers theory can be applied in the counselling situation.

Creativity: You don't have to be intuitive to be creative. This program helps everyone to develop their creativity.

Culture & P.T.: There are a number of version of the MBTI® instrument in other languages. It is interesting to look at the type of a country and how type is expressed in various cultures.

Dealing with Difficult People: Often difficult people have grown up not having the opportunity to develop their type fully. Understanding where they are stuck can give some clues how to deal more effectively with these people.

Decision Making: What is the best way to make a decision? Are you using the zigzag format of all four functions, sensing, intuiting, thinking and feeling, when making a decision?

Developing the Functions: While each type has a function that is most preferred, we are called on to use all our functions at various times, and with practice become more proficient at using our less developed ones.

Developing Your Palest Colour: Each one of has one temperament that we prefer. We need to use them all. How can we develop our weakest temperament?

Eating and Type: Your type influences how and what you eat. Knowing how type relates to eating can help you eat more sensibly.

Emotional Intelligence: Studying the five factors as given by Daniel Goleman: Self-Awareness, Self-Management, Motivalion, Empathy and Social Skills.

Enneagram & P.T.: The Enneagram is concerned with the defense mechanisms we have developed to cope with our world. Understanding how they developed in us and how the different types are modified by the Ennegram is interesting.

Entrepreneur: Being in business for yourself can be exciting, but is it for everyone. How do type and temperament relate to starting up your own business.

Ethics of Using P.T.: This session looks at the ethical and non ethical uses of the MBTI® instrument.

Fashion & P.T.: Even the clothes we wear and the fashions that attract us depend on type.

Feeling Man: The Thinking preference description better fits our stereotype of masculinity. The Feeling man is as every bit as masculine, he just expressed it differently. (See also the Thinking Woman.)

Gestures & P.T: What are some cues to identifying type? What typical gestures do each type make?

Goal Setting: How to set goals and how to meet them using type.

Grief, Coping with (Death & Divorce): Each type copes with grief in a somewhat different way. The stress we go through in times of grief can trigger our Inferior function or being in the grip. Knowing how to help others or even yourself through times of loss can make the experience easier to work through, as well as growing from the experience.

Grip, Being In The (Inferior Function): Under stress we can be "beside ourselves" or "in the grip." Each type has a different way of responding to stress depending on our Inferior function. There are ways to prepare for stressful situations to lessen the effects of these often disastrous behaviours. More and more people are experincing chronic stress and finding they are in the grip for long epriods of time.

Guardian: The Gold temperament

Health Care: If you were a patient how would you like to be told bad news? This study is based on the book by Judy Allen & Susan Brock Health Care Communication Using Personality Type: Patients Are Different!. The communications skills taught based on Jung/Myers theory apply to many other situations as well.

History of Temperament and P.T.: A look at the journey of seeing similarities in behaviour and thinking patterns from Hippocrates to modern day leaders such as Jung, Keirsy, Berens, Lowry, Briggs and Myers.

Humour: What kinds of things do each type find funny? How can we use humour to relieve stress and build team spirit?

Idealist: This is the Blue Temperament.

Intelligences, Multiple: Howard Gardener's eight mental functions are modified by by the individual's temperament.

Interaction Styles. This program was developed by Linda Berens at Temperament Research Institute. It looks at the four possible ways people interact with one another: Chart-the-Course, Behind-the-Scenes, In-Charge, and Get-Things-Going. This is usually part of the Self-Discovery Process. However, it can be offered as a stand-alone topic.

Jung and Freud: Jung was a disciple of Freud, but it was Jung's theories that are the basis of Jung/Myers theory. This session provides a look at Jung and Freud as well as Adler, Maslow and B.F. Skinner as the great thinkers in modern psychology.

Leadership (& Power): Leadership styles differ depending on type. Each type responds best to certain leadership styles. The most effective leader is one who can skilfully use all 8 preferences. Power goes with leadership and the leader must use power in an ethical manner.

Learning Styles (Teaching & Education): The way we learn is very dependent on our type. We can use this information to improve our ability to learn and also how best to teach and inform others.

Leisure (Balance of Work/Play): What forms of leisure are the most fun and relaxing for each type? We need to balance our work life with opportunities for leisure.

Mandala (Jungian): Using the mandala can often be a means to acces the unconscious.

MBTI®:The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® instrument can be administered on an individual basis or in a group setting. It is not an instrument that can be given without interpretation.

Mediation: Understanding type can be very helpful in bringing two groups together.

Meetings: Let Jung/Myers theory help you conduct better meetings.

Mental Deficits: Understanding problems such as obsessive compulsive disorder, autism, depression ,etc. helps to distinguish this behaviour from the more usual mental functioning.

Midlife Crisis: From the age of forty on, each of us is likely to go through a major reexamination of our lives. Your type will be a big factor in how you are likely to react when "mid-life crisis" hits you. There are ways to prepare and move through it more gracefully.

Money: How do the various types handle their money? How can they do it more effectively?

Motivation: Each of the four temperaments has a different key motivator that energizes our behaviour.

Movies: An evening can be spent watching a favourite film and practising identifying the type of the characters in the movie.

Myers, Isabel Briggs: Discover who the developer of the MBTI® instrument was.

Negotiating: In business, organizations, with clients or individuals, using the M.B.T.I. concepts can help everyone have a Win-Win result.

Neuroscience & P.T: Research is being done using brian scans showing the parts of the brain that are being used when different preferences are activated.

Organizations, Using Type in: Type can be very useful in many aspects of any organization. It provides a common "language" to help individuals understand how the organization can be more effective.

Organizations, Typing: Just as individuals can be "typed" so can organizations. Understanding an organization's type can be useful in understanding how it operates and how to bring about changes to fulfill its mission statement. This is also useful for typing churches.

Parenting: Each child is unique. Every parent's task is how to keep in balance: allowing the child to develop according to his or her basic needs, and becoming a well rounded, disciplined and contributing citizen.

Personality Profiler: This is a computer scored instrument of Jung/Myers theory (This is not the not the MBTI® instrument) with the added feature of giving four subscales for each of the four dimensions of behaviour. This in-depth look at type takes into account the uniqueness of each individual. See table below.
Extraverting- Introverting
Sensing - Intuiting
Thinking - Feeling
Organized - Adaptable
Talkative - Quiet
Intrepid - Reserved
Outgoing - Intimate
Participative - Reflective
Concrete - Abstract
Practical - Innovative
Conventional - Visionary
Conservative - Trend-Setting
Rational - Empathic
Atonomous - Compassionate
Analytic - Warm
Competitive - Nurturing
Planned - Open-Ended
Reliable - Casual
Deliberate - Spontaneous
Conforming - Non-Conforming

Pets & P.T.: Even pets can be typed. This fun session also has the serious purpose of learning how to predict type based on the behaviour observed.

Play and recreation are important for our over-all well-being. This topic explores how the temperaments and types play.

Preferences (E-I, S-N, T-F, & J-P): What are the basic preferences? While we have a preference for one from each dimension of behaviour, we also need to be able to use them all when it is appropriate.

Preference Combinations: There are 24 pair of two letter combinations. (Temperament uses four of the two letter combinations.) This gives six ways of grouping the 16 types that show how some types can be looked at in groups.

Preference Combinations: Beside the four letter type, there are various combinations of preference letters that give insight into behaviours: e.g. temperament, function pairs, quadrants, etc.

Problem Solving (Z-Factor): We can use type in a systematic way to tackle the many problems we face in our daily lives and work situations. It is useful to first look at the facts, (Sensing), then the possibilities (Intuiting), the consequences of the possibility (thinking), and how the decision will affect people (Feeling).

Procrastination: We all put off those tasks we don't like doing. Our type influences the kinds of procrastination we practise.

Rational: The Green temperament.

Reframing: When we need to communicate, it is helpful to put the message into another type's "language."

Relationships, Intimate: Any kind of intimate relationship: dating, marriage, common-law, or same sex relationships, has its problems that Jung/Myers theory addresses. Excellent for pre-marital training or marriage enrichment. The main areas are:

Sales: Knowing your clients type makes it easier as a salesperson to do a better job to meet their needs. As a consumer understanding your salesperson's type can help you to make wiser purchases.

Self-Discovery Process™.  This is a TRI Methodology™ program devleoped by Linda Berens. It looks at personality through three different models: Temperament, Interaction Styles and Cognitive Processes (Jung/Myers theory). This helps people have a better grasp of the concept of personality and increases the chance of getting a "best-fit type." See TRI Methodology

Self-Esteem: Each of us needs to have feelings of self-esteem, self-confidence and self-respect. Each type has different ways of meeting these needs.

Shadow: The shadow holds our repressed memories and can often erupt and disrupt our lives. Our inferior functions can be a key to dipping into the shadow. Often, our helaing depends on our dealing with our shadow selves.

Singer-Loomis Deployment Inventory: The indicator measures the relative strength of each of the eight mental functions (the extraverted and introverted versions of the four mental functions) and from this information determines one's type.

Smoking: Our addiction to smoking and breaking this addiction is related to our type.

Spirituality (and Religions): The way we follow our spiritual journey is related to type. Also, the type of the founders of the religions of the world influenced their forms.

Sports: John Niednagel claims that a players' athletic abilities relate to their type. Her are some concepts that are useful to students considering an athletic career and to coaches in their training athletes.

Step II (Components of the Preferences: Jung/Myers theory helps people determine their basic type, but the question always comes up: What if my score is very close between two preferences? The Step II is an enhanced version of the MBTI® instrument with more questions. A basic type can be determined from this version, but then with further analysis by a computer scores on 5 sub factors for each of the preference pairs produces 20 additional scores. This helps the individual see which of the components relate to one preference or the other. See the table below.
Extraverting - Introverting
Sensing - Intuiting
Thinking - Feeling
Judging - Perceiving
Initiating - Receiving
Expressive - Contained
Gregarious - Intimate
Participative - Reflective
Enthusiastic - Quiet
Concrete - Abstract
Realistic - Imaginative
Practical - Inferential
Experiental - Theoretical
Traditional - Original
Logical - Empathic
Reasonable - Compassionate
Questioning - Accommodating
Critical - Accepting
Tough - Tender
Systematic - Casual
Planful - Open Ended
Earling Starting - Pressure
Scheduled - Spontaneous
Methodical - Emergent

Stress Management: When our basic needs are not met we experience stress. Type helps identify what is likely to stress us and how cope with stress. (See "Grip, In The" above).

Systems: Any change affects every other part. Looking at how to bring about change by making small modifications.

Team Building: Understanding the type and temperament of the various members of a group can help them operate more effectively as a team.

Temperament - Artisan, Guardian, Idealist & Rational: The four basic temperaments focus on needs and motivation.

Thinking Woman: The description of the Feeling preference fits our stereotype of femininity. But how do Thinking women express their femininity? (See also Feeling Man).

Time Management: Looking at how type affects the way we manage time.

TRI Methodology™: Temperament Research Institute has developed a number of programs and materials to help people find the "best-fit type." See also Self-Discovery Process.

True Colors™: This program looks at personality through the lens of temperament.

True Type (Best fit): Just because you got a temperament or four letters for a type doesn't mean you've found your best fit. More exploration, particularly for those with close scores, is needed to be sure that you have correctly identified yourself.

Type Development: There is an ordered progression of preferences we work on at various stages of our lives. The order is determined by our Type Dynamics.

Type Dynamics (Dominant, Auxiliary, Tertiary & Inferior Functions): Each type has its own hierarchy of mental functions. Understanding this concept can be the key to understanding many aspects of our personality.

Type Indicators, Alternate: There have been many attempts besides the MBTI® instrument to measure Jung's psychological types. This looks at other type indicators.

TypeWatching: While the individual always is the final arbitrator as to one's type, there are lots of clues that one can use to make a guesstimate of someone else's type.

Values: The ranking of our values is quite dependent on our type and temperament.

Visioning: When group, either religious or secular, are looking to the future, it is useful to keep type and temperament in mind.

Wellness vs. Neurotic Styles: The kinds of emotional problems we are susceptible to is related to our type. Understanding this can be a key to our keeping well both mentally and physically.

Work, Using Type at: While being hired or promoted should never be based on one's type, there are so many aspects of the work work that a knowledge of type can be useful to.

Writing: The way one attacks the process of writing and the style are influenced by one's type.

Special Applications of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Topics: The above topics can be designed to apply to specific needs. Workshops for groups that already have been designed to meet their needs are:
Appreciating Differences is under the direction of Jack Falt. Jack is a retired high school guidance counsellor. He is trained to facilitate Personality Dimensions®, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® instrument, TRI Methodology®, True Colors and his own Appreciating Differences Thru Colours which he uses extensively in presentations, workshops and personal growth counselling. His background also includes training in Parent Effectiveness Training, Transactional Analysis-Gestalt, and Neuro-linguist Programming.

For more information contact: Appreciating Differences, Jack Falt, P.O. Box 701, 100 Wilkinson St., Almonte, ON, K0A 1A0, Tel: (613) 256-3276, E-mail: 

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